By Ian S. F. Jones, Yoshiaki Toba
Parameterization of the wind stress--drag--over the sea is relevant to many features of air-sea interplay, which in flip is essential for types of climate prediction and weather modeling. Wind pressure over the sea brings jointly thirty of the world's best specialists in air-sea interplay, less than the auspices of the medical Committee on Oceanic examine. The contributed chapters have the funds for a radical reexamination of the actual techniques that move momentum among the ambience and the sea. as well as masking validated basics, the ebook additionally explores energetic components of study and controversy for researchers and graduate scholars in actual oceanography, meteorology, fluid dynamics, and coastal engineering.
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Extra resources for Wind Stress over the Ocean
For people studying unsteady flow problems, the drag coefficient needs to be adjusted for rapid changes in wind speed or direction. When there is strong swell and light winds, the direction of the stress can be significantly different from that of the wind. 16. The neutral stability drag coefficient based on the 10 m wind using the expression in Eq. 9). the relative position of organized turbulent motion in the atmosphere needs to be taken into account. It seems the drag coefficient increases under updrafts and decreases under downdrafts.
To correlate wave breaking with variations in momentum transfer remains a challenge for the future. The causes of variations in the statistical measures of the marine boundary layer are not well understood. Ordered motions, discussed in Chapter 3 and "inactive motions" from afar are complicating factors. Variations occur even under ostensibly similar conditions. One manifestation of this is the lateral drift of atmospheric rolls. They migrate laterally past a fixed observation point and aircraft measurements may be the only practical way to address this inhomogeneity.
GATE, a study of the energetics and dynamics of cloud clusters that drift from the African continent over the Atlantic Ocean where they modulate the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone convection, was the first large-scale international field experiment of GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Programme) and the largest air-sea interaction field experiment to date. BOMEX, ATEX and the boundary layer programme of the IIOE can be seen as precursors of GATE that developed the tools for cooperative air-sea interaction work at sea.