Oceanography

Download e-book for iPad: Introduction to Physical Oceanography by Robert H. Stewart

By Robert H. Stewart

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The error in wind direction was ±17◦ . Spatial resolution was 25 km. Data from QuikScat has an accuracy of ±1 m/s. Because scatterometers view a specific oceanic area only once a day, the data must be used with numerical weather models to obtain 6-hourly wind maps required for some studies. Windsat Windsat is an experimental, polarimetric, microwave radiometer developed by the US Navy that measures the amount and polarization of microwave radiation emitted from the sea at angles between 50◦ to 55◦ relative to the vertical and at five radio frequencies.

05 m. Satellite Altimeter Maps of the Sea-floor Topography Seasat, geosat, ers– 1, and ers–2 were operated in orbits with ground tracks spaced 3–10 km apart, which was sufficient to map the geoid. By combining data from echo-sounders with data from geosat and ers–1 altimeter systems, Smith and Sandwell (1997) produced maps of the sea floor with horizontal resolution of 5–10 km and a global average depth accuracy of ±100 m. 5 Sea Floor Charts and Data Sets Almost all echo-sounder data have been digitized and combined to make seafloor charts.

Don’t forget, there is no insolation at night! 2. The length of day, which depends on latitude and season. 3. The cross-sectional area of the surface absorbing sunlight, which depends on height of the sun above the horizon. 4. Attenuation, which depends on: i) Clouds, which absorb and scatter radiation. ii) Path length through the atmosphere, which varies as csc ϕ, where ϕ is angle of the sun above the horizon. 2). H2 O, O3 , and CO2 are all 54 CHAPTER 5. 2 Insolation (spectral irradiance) of sunlight at top of the atmosphere and at the sea surface on a clear day.

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