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By Pradip Kar

An A-to-Z of doping together with its definition, its significance, tools of dimension, benefits and drawbacks, homes and characteristics—and function in conjugated polymers

The versatility of polymer fabrics is increasing a result of creation of electro-active habit into the features of a few of them. the main intriguing improvement during this quarter is said to the invention of intrinsically conductive polymers or conjugated polymers, which come with such examples as polyacetylene, polyaniline, polypyrrole, and polythiophene in addition to their derivatives. "Synmet" or "synthetic steel" conjugated polymers, with their steel features, together with conductivity, are of designated curiosity to researchers. a space of unlimited power and alertness, conjugated polymers have sparked huge, immense curiosity, starting in 2000 while the Nobel Prize for the invention and improvement of electrically carrying out conjugated polymers used to be presented to 3 scientists: Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid, and Hideki Shirakawa.

Conjugated polymers have a mixture of properties—both metal (conductivity) and polymeric; doping offers the conjugated polymer's semiconducting a variety of conductivity, from insulating to low engaging in. The doping procedure is a validated powerful technique for generating engaging in polymers as semiconducting fabric, supplying an alternative choice to inorganic semiconductors.

Doping in Conjugated Polymers is the 1st e-book devoted to the topic and provides a complete A-to-Z evaluation. It information doping interplay, dopant varieties, doping recommendations, and the impression of the dopant on functions. It explains how the functionality of doped conjugated polymers is significantly motivated by means of the character of the dopants and their point of distribution in the polymer, and exhibits how the electrochemical, mechanical, and optical houses of the doped conjugated polymers should be adapted by means of controlling the dimensions and mobility of the dopants counter ions.

The ebook additionally examines doping on the nanoscale, particularly, with carbon nanotubes.

Readership
The ebook will curiosity a extensive diversity of researchers together with chemists, electrochemists, biochemists, experimental and theoretical physicists, digital and electric engineers, polymer and fabrics scientists. it might probably even be utilized in either graduate and upper-level undergraduate classes on conjugated polymers and polymer technology.

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Therefore, conjugated polymer doped with polymeric dopant generally has very low conductivity compared with that of an inorganic- or organic-doped one. Here the better reactivity or ionizability of the polymer dopant is also required for better doping in the conjugated polymer. In the case of functionalized polymer, it is very difficult to behave as very good electrolytes in solution. So, there is almost no report for this type 40 Doping in Conjugated Polymers of doping by electrochemical method.

V. silver nanoparticle which attracts the π-electron cloud of the conjugated poly(m-aminophenol) [55]. Probably due to the same reason, the polyaniline/silver nanoparticles composite, synthesized by the reduction of silver nitrate using different acid-doped polyaniline salt, shows good conductivity. From FTIR analysis it has been confirmed that only the residual emeraldine units remain protonated by nitric acid, which is a reaction by-product. Therefore, the very high conductivity of the polyaniline/silver nanocomposite containing 24–27% silver nanoparticle with few acid-doped units can be explained by “induced doping,” although this is not considered by the author [56].

So, there are a relatively fewer number of reports available on the n-type doped conjugated polymers like alkali-metal-doped poly(p-phenylene) and poly(p-phenylene vinylene), polythiophene derivatives, and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene). The n-type doping was also demonstrated trans-polyacetylene by reducing with sodium amalgam or, preferably, sodium naphthanilide, or by electrochemical cathodic reduction of trans-polyacetylene film attached to a positive terminal electrode in LiClO4 dissolved in tetrahydrofuran [19].

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