By G L Pickard and W. J. Emery (Auth.)
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Extra resources for Descriptive Physical Oceanography. An Introduction
See Fig. 2(f)). Examples of the areal distribution of ( E - P ) , as distinct from the global average of Fig. 10, were given as annual and seasonal averages for the N o r t h Atlantic Ocean by Schmitt et al. (1989) together with references to other sources of such data. It will be noted from Fig. 3 that the density of the surface water has a single FIG. 9. Surface salinity of the oceans in August.
These LCs are made visually evident by the occurrence of numerous long parallel lines or streaks of flotsam at the surface on lakes or sea. They are aligned with the wind direction and typical lateral spacings between these lines are 2-25 m for lakes and 2-300 m at sea. If the wind direction changes suddenly, the lines realign with the wind in 2-3 minutes in lakes and 10-20 minutes in the open sea. They are most commonly observed for wind speeds above 3 m/s but can occur at lower speeds. g. leaves, dye, umbrellas for subsurface drift indicators, horizontal aluminum sheets rendered neutrally buoyant with electric light bulbs for estimating vertical velocities, etc.
G. electromagnetically, in which the speed of sound is similar to that in water and so the two are acoustically "matched" and the energy generated in the transducer is transmitted efficiently into the sea. A source of more information on sound in the sea is in the text by Urich (1982). 8 Light in the Sea The behaviour of visible light in water is different in degree from that in air, in particular it is absorbed in much shorter distances in the sea than in the atmosphere. e. from the violet to the red of the visible spectrum.