By Martin Hovland
Due to extensive ocean backside surveys, quite often for the aim of constructing oil and gasoline assets, scientists be aware of that deep-water corals shape wide reefs and massive carbonate mounds within the chilly waters of the entire significant oceans.This ebook, written by means of Hovland (Statoil, Norway), a marine geology specialist, is of substantial curiosity as a result of its many coloured images and drawings that illustrate the destinations and natural variety of the reefs and piles. these within the different world-wide oceans seem to be related. The textual content is definitely written and the writer attracts consciousness to the necessity for conservation, basically to guard the reefs from harm by means of deep-water trawling. valuable as supplemental studying for sessions on marine biology.Summing Up: hugely prompt. educational collections, upper-level undergraduates, graduate scholars, researchers, and school.
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However, he clearly thought that this was only the tip of the iceberg: ‘‘The presence of hydrothermal vents on mid-oceanic seamounts and oﬀ-axis seamounts may indicate that hydrothermal emissions are more common in the deep sea than previously thought’’ (Rogers, 1994). More recently, it has been observed with modern heatﬂow measurements that certain portions of some seamounts represent recharge areas, where seawater ﬂows into the seabed and the underlying porous oceanic crust. This may account for the ﬂuid plumes indicated on acoustic transects, rising into the water high above the Hancock Seamount of the Hawaiian chain (Hovland, 1988).
2). It was 280 metres below us on a sill, perched on a slope leading down to a sediment basin at 320 m water depth. But, it did not look natural. Was this, perhaps, a human-made submarine listening device, of the Cold War? Rising 15 metres up over the surrounding seaﬂoor, and being 50 m wide at its base, we concluded that this feature, although being unnaturally regular, must be a trick of nature. The vessel was halted and the sidescan sonar was reeled in. The 500 kg heavy, and 3 m long ‘‘gravity corer’’ was readied for action.
Groundwater ﬂow, seepage, and springs). The microbialites were described by Laval et al. (2000) as being up to 3 m high, occurring along the lakesides in clusters aligned roughly perpendicular to the shoreline. They generally occur at three depths: shallow 176 Ancient and modern analogues [Ch. 7 ($10 m), intermediate ($20 m), and deep (>30 m). The shallow ones range in height from several centimetres to a few decimetres and comprise interconnected clusters of discrete round aggregates of calcite grains covered by photosynthetic microbial communities and their calciﬁed remains.