By Rene Dirven, Marjolijn Verspoor
Preface; XI; bankruptcy 1; The cognitive foundation of language: Language and suggestion 1; 1.0 evaluate 1; 1.1 creation: signal structures 1; 1.2 Structuring rules in language five; 1.3 Linguistic and conceptual different types thirteen; 1.4 precis 20; 1.5 extra interpreting 21; Assignments 22; bankruptcy 2; what is in a be aware? Lexicology 25; 2.0 evaluate 25; 2.
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Extra info for Cognitive Exploration of Language and Linguistics (Cognitive Linguistics in Practice)
B. c. d. e. We needed a new telephone. We called the telephone company. They installed it in the afternoon. But they did a lousy job. I am still amazed at their stupidity. A word such as telephone is a prototypical noun: It denotes a concrete, physical, three-dimensional thing. e. an institution which, however, has some kind of concrete existence. The temporal noun afternoon has no concrete existence and is an even less prototypical member of nouns. The noun job refers to an action and, hence, is more verb-like in its meaning, while the noun stupidity refers to a property and is more adjective-like in meaning.
The category “chair”, have prototypical or central members and more marginal or peripheral members. This principle does not only apply to the members of a category, but also to the various senses of a word form. The question then is: How can we tell which sense of a word form like fruit is the most central? There are three interrelated ways that help us determine which sense of a word is the most central. In order to establish the salience of a sense, we can look at what particular sense comes to mind ﬁrst, we can make a statistical count as to which use is the most frequent, or we can look at which sense is the more basic in its capacity to clarify the other senses.
In short, the choice for a lexical item as a name for a particular referent is determined both by semasiological and onomasiological salience. This recognition points the way towards a fully integrated conception of lexicology, in which both semasiological and onomasiological approaches are systematically combined. 5 Summary We can see two almost opposite phenomena when studying words and their meanings. On the one hand, words are polysemous or have a number of diﬀerent related senses. On the other hand, we use many diﬀerent words, sometimes synonyms, but sometimes generic or speciﬁc words, to refer to the same thing, which is the referent.