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Additional info for Coastal Fluxes in the Anthropocene: The Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone Project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (Global Change - The IGBP Series)
1998, Ittekkot et al. 2000, Nixon 2003). 1 Industrialisation, Urbanisation and Wastes The location and intensity of development of the coastal zone to meet urban and industrial needs is mirrored by the global distribution of the population. Both the intensity and the areal extent of these developments are increasing concomitantly with population. , Jickells 1998, Ducrotoy and Pullen 1999). Nutrient and contaminant wastes, atmospheric loads, sewage and other urban and industrial materials including oils and detergents have been identified as continuing global concerns (GESAMP 2001).
3). Here, upscaling is primarily used to mean the development and application of techniques to predict, quantitatively or semi-quantitatively, the behaviour of large spatial regions based on observations made at much smaller scales. Typology is the development of environmental classifications or categories of data that can be related to local and regional observations in ways that permit inferences about areas in which local observations are lacking. The typology approach consistently characterises functional data (essentially, the biogeochemical flux and budget information described in Chap.
1 Pressures on the Coastal Zone from Natural Forcing Global Systems and Climate Patterns Large-scale phenomena influence climate, including the global “ocean conveyor belt” or thermohaline circulation pattern (Broeker 1994) and, regionally, ENSO (El NiñoSouthern Oscillation) in the Pacific Ocean and the NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) (Fig. 7; see Sect. 1). Evidence is accumulating of historical shifts in the patterns and intensities of these phenomena that can influence biotic distribution and diversity and affect coastal processes.