By Anthony B. Ward, Michael P. Barnes
Botulinum pollution now play a really major position within the administration of a wide selection of health conditions; from complications to hypersalivation, and from spasticity to sweating. during this ebook, a robust, foreign workforce of specialists define the elemental neurochemistry of botulinum pollution and chart the development of the drug from laboratory to medical institution. Then person chapters summarize their use for the most scientific symptoms within the context of different on hand remedies. This publication might be of curiosity to neuroscientists and working towards clinicians operating in quite a lot of specialities, from neurology and dermatology to pediatrics, cosmetic surgery and rehabilitation drugs.
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Additional info for Clinical Uses of Botulinum Toxins
Hambleton, unpublished) that purified neurotoxin preparations are effective. Formulations of neurotoxins are being developed and several clinical trials of purified neurotoxin have completed in Europe, sponsored by Merz with the now-licensed product in Germany, XeominÕ . The German company BioteCon have patent applications for the use of purified neurotoxin in treating Type A toxin non-responders (now assigned to Merz) and snoring15,16. 1. Therapeutic botulinum toxin products Toxin serotype A B C Product Supplier DysportÕ BOTOXÕ BoNT-A Ipsen Allergan Available in China XeominÕ NeuroblocÕ MyoblocÕ No approved product Merz Solstice Neurosciences N/A Approved indications See text See text Strabismus, blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm Focal dystomas Spasmodic torticollis a a E F a No approved product No approved product Non-approved use.
J. R. Soc. , 87, 307. 28. Shone, C. , Gatley, S. and Melling, J. (1986). In vitro assays for botulinum toxins and antitoxins. In I. Davidson and W. , Reduction of animal usage in the development and control of biological products. Dev. Biol. Stand. Basel: Karger, 64, 141À5. 29. Ekong, T. A. , McLellan, K. and Sesardic, D. (1995). Immunological detection of Clostridium botulinum toxin type A in therapeutic preparations. J. Immun. Methods, 180, 181À91. 30. Sesardic, D. (2002). Alternatives in testing of bacterial toxins and antitoxins.
Toxicon, 38, 245À58. 40. , Kemmer, T. P. and Gratzl, M. (1992). Amylase release from streptolysin O-permeabilized pancreatic acinar cells. Effects of Ca2þ, guanosine 5’-gamma-thio triphosphate, cyclic AMP, tetanus toxin and botulinum A toxin. Biochem. , 283, 899À904. 41. de Paiva, A. and Dolly, J. O. (1990). Light chain of botulinum neurotoxin is active in mammalian motor nerve terminals when delivered via liposomes. , 277, 171À4. 42. , Neher, E. and Dreyer, F. (1986). Intracellularly injected tetanus toxin inhibits exocytosis in bovine adrenal chromaffin cells.