By Karen Bullock (auth.)
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Extra info for Citizens, Community and Crime Control
This challenge notably arose in the work of Charles Taylor, Michael Sandel, Michael Walzer, Robert Bellah and Alasdair MacIntyre. Their concern was to provide an alternative to what was seen by some as excessive individualism and the encroachment of the market into the spheres of policy making during the 1980s, noted in the introduction of this monograph. The communitarian challenge is diverse, but common themes can be identiﬁed. Buchanan (1989: 852–853) summarises fundamental communitarian criticisms of neo-liberal political philosophy.
Similarly, police are democratic, writes (Bayley, 2009: 81), when ‘the laws they follow incorporate international standards of human rights, when they are accountable to authorities outside of themselves, and when they give priority to responding to the security needs of individuals’. Of these, Bayley (2009) suggests, there is perhaps little disagreement about the ﬁrst but much more about the third, a theme which is returned to throughout this monograph. Discussions of democracy and policing are perhaps more normally linked Introduction 19 to sets of processes and practices than to values.
Citizen Participation was viewed to be important for generating responsible leaders and for ensuring that governments are responsive to the will of citizens. However, greater participation in political decision making was viewed sceptically and indeed was thought to be undesirable. Reﬂecting the themes of competitive elitism, the classical pluralist position was that citizens are apathetic, ill-informed and in any case unlikely to have much of an impact on political processes. Indeed, from this perspective, to function effectively democracy did not seem to require a high level active involvement from the citizenry; in fact, it worked quite well without it (Held, 1996: 205).