By Eberhard Gwinner
In addition to the kind of static homes of the environ ment, crops and animals needs to take care of its temporal adaptations. one of the such a lot conspicuous temporal alterations to which organisms are uncovered are periodic phenomena generated via the rotation of the earth approximately its axis, its revolution round the sunlight, and the extra advanced activities of the moon on the subject of either solar and earth. the 1st of those astronomical cycles are easy to the usual day-by-day and annual rhythms, respectively, within the setting. The 3rd generates a bit of extra advanced cycles, comparable to these in moonlight and adaptations in tides. those environmental cycles have supplied demanding situations and possibilities for organisms to regulate their body structure and behaviour to them. certainly, the predictability inherent to those periodic procedures has enabled organisms to adapt innate endogenous rhythmic courses that fit the environmental cycles and make allowance, in various alternative ways, adjustment of organic actions to the cycles of environmental adjustments. The endogenous nature of rhythmicity used to be first essentially famous within the 1930's in day-by-day periodicities, the main largely disbursed and top investigated type of organic rhythms of this sort. within the 1950's, demonstrations of endogenous tidal and lunar rhythms, which happen in a few littoral and marine organisms, ensued. one other decade handed prior to endogenous annual periodicities have been first tested unambiguously.
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Additional resources for Circannual Rhythms: Endogenous Annual Clocks in the Organization of Seasonal Processes
3 Social Factors The only indication that social cues might affect circannual r comes from a study with European starlings. If held in LD 12: 12, the first circannual cycle of testicular size was significantly shorter in males held in individual cages than in males held together with other males or females. This difference disappeared, however, during later cycles (Gwinner 1981a). In the same birds it was also shown that the pattern of testicular growth and regression was affected by the presence of females (Gwinner 1975a).
Occasionally rhythms have been described which under different environmental conditions have rather different and always "atypical" periods. 3). , whitethroat, Sylvia communis, in LD 12: 12, Gwinner 1983; willow warbler, Phylloscopus trochilus in LD 18: 6, Gwinner 1971a). All of these "atypical" rhythms provide borderline cases of the subject treated in this monograph, which may, however, at some stage become of interest in connection with the physiological analysis of the mechanisms underlying circannual rhythmicities (for discussions see particularly Mrosovsky 1977, 1978, 1985; Mrosovsky et al.
20. ) July, and subsequently stored at room temperature. Germination tests at 2- to 3-week intervals were similar to those of the experiments shown in Figs. 19. The rapid increase in the capacity to germinate occurred simultaneously in all four samples. (After Biinning 1949b) multaneously in early October in all samples tested (Fig. 20). This suggests that "the embryo takes over the endogenous annual rhythmicity from the mother plant so that it is in the same phase as the latter" (Bunning 1949b, p.