By William Woishnis, Sina Ebnesajjad (Eds.)
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Extra info for Chemical Resistance of Thermoplastics
For amorphous polymers above the Tg, that is, in the flexible and rubbery states, there is more space (free volume) available through which diffusing molecules may pass, and so these materials show comparatively high diffusion rates with low molecular-weight diffusing fluids. For crystalline polymers between Tg and Tm, the diffusion rate is very dependent on the degree of crystallization. Several factors affect the permeation rate of the polymer. Temperature increase raises the permeation rate for two reasons.
Three examples of ESC of amorphous polymers include polystyrene with white spirit, polycarbonate with methanol and polysulfone with ethyl acetate. Susceptibility to environmental stress cracking is not predictable, thus requiring end-use testing of a polymer prior to finalizing part designs. In the case of crystalline polymers, cracking is probably caused by the action of the chemical environment in the amorphous regions of the more complex morphologies. Benzene and toluene impact on polyethylene are two such examples.
1, which shows two types of molecules A and B. The average forces between like molecules are FAA and FBB, and the average forces between dissimilar molecules are FAB. If FAA was the largest of these three forces, then the A molecules would tend to congregate or cohere, rejecting the B molecules. A similar phase separation would occur if FBB was the greatest. It is, therefore, seen that only when FAB$FAA and FAB$FBB will coexistence or compatibility be possible. Obviously, if it is possible to obtain some measure of these forces, it should be possible to make predictions about polymer solubility.