By Sabu Thomas, Yves Grohens, P. Jyotishkumar
Filling the distance for a reference devoted to the characterization of polymer blends and their micro and nano morphologies, this publication offers entire, systematic assurance in a one-stop, two-volume source for all these operating within the field.
Leading researchers from and academia, in addition to from executive and personal learn associations all over the world summarize fresh technical advances in chapters dedicated to their person contributions. In so doing, they learn a variety of smooth characterization concepts, from microscopy and spectroscopy to diffraction, thermal research, rheology, mechanical measurements and chromatography. those equipment are in comparison with one another to help in selecting the simplest resolution for either primary and utilized difficulties, being attentive to the characterization of nanoscale miscibility and interfaces, either in blends related to copolymers and in immiscible blends. The thermodynamics, miscibility, section separation, morphology and interfaces in polymer blends also are mentioned in gentle of recent insights concerning the nanoscopic scale. eventually, the authors aspect the processing-morphology-property relationships of polymer blends, in addition to the impact of processing at the new release of micro and nano morphologies, and the dependence of those morphologies at the homes of blends. scorching issues resembling compatibilization via nanoparticles, miscibility of recent biopolymers and nanoscale investigations of interfaces in blends also are addressed.
With its application-oriented technique, handpicked choice of themes and specialist members, this can be a superb survey for a person eager about the sector of polymer blends for complicated technologies.
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Additional info for Characterization of Polymer Blends: Miscibility, Morphology and Interfaces
To allow comparisons in the strength of the interactions between different systems, some authors prefer to work with an arbitrarily chosen constant value for Vr, instead of changing its value from one system to another . 5 The Hildebrand Approach This approach estimates the strength of the dispersive interactions in mixtures of solvents, and is straightforwardly extended to mixtures involving polymers [8,9]. The cohesive energy, Ecoh, is deﬁned as the internal energy of vaporization (DEv) from the liquid state to the ideal gas state (where intermolecular forces are suppressed).
Miscible (singlephase) blends are usually optically transparent and are homogeneous to the polymer segmental level. Single-phase blends also undergo phase separation that is usually brought about by variations in temperature, pressure, or in the composition of the mixture. Since, ultimately, the properties of a polymer blend will depend on the ﬁnal morphology, various research groups have recently undertaken extensive studies of the miscibility and phase behavior of polymer blends. In practice, the physical properties of interest are found either by miscible pairs or by a heterogeneous system, depending on the type of application.
Experimentally, phase separation can be followed by a number of experimental techniques that include light scattering, neutron scattering, ellipsometry, and rheology. The generated morphology can be characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) ﬂuorescence microscopy, infrared, near-infrared and Raman imaging, and confocal microscopy. 3 Compatibility in Polymer Blends In general, the compatibility between the polymer phases decides the properties of a heterogeneous polymer blend [6,7].