Oceanography

Get Biological oceanography: an introduction PDF

By Carol Lalli, Timothy R. Parsons

This renowned undergraduate textbook bargains scholars an organization grounding within the basics of organic oceanography. in addition to a transparent and available textual content, studying is more desirable with a variety of illustrations together with a color part, thorough bankruptcy summaries, and questions with solutions and reviews behind the e-book. the great assurance of this ebook encompasses the homes of seawater which have an effect on existence within the ocean, type of marine environments and organisms, phytoplankton and zooplankton, marine foodstuff webs, greater marine animals (marine mammals, seabirds and fish), lifestyles at the seafloor, and how during which people impact marine ecosystems. the second one version has been completely up-to-date, together with a lot information on hand for the 1st time in a booklet at this point. there's additionally a brand new bankruptcy on human affects - from harvesting significant quantities of fish, pollutants, and intentionally or by accident shifting marine organisms to new environments. This e-book enhances the Open collage Oceanography sequence, additionally released through Butterworth-Heinemann, and is a collection textual content for the Open college 3rd point direction, S330. a number one undergraduate textual content New bankruptcy on human affects - a hugely topical topic multiplied color plate part

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Furthermore, the oceans are cooled primarily by evaporation and, because the latent heat of evaporation for water is the highest of all substances, great quantities of heat can be transferred and stored in water vapour with relatively little change in water temperature. It is sometimes convenient to designate biogeographic zones based on sea surface temperatures. The following zones lie within the boundaries set by the annual average surface temperatures given in the right column: (b) Tropical Subtropical Temperate Polar 25°C 15°C 5°C (northern limit) 2°C (southern limit) < 0-2° or 5°C Temperate zones in both hemispheres are characterized by a mixture of subpolar and subtropical water, and by having the maximal annual temperature range.

This red water may be caused by very high concentrations of innocuous species of dinoflagellates, or of species that contain potent toxins (see 44 below). In any case, red tides begin with a sudden increase in numbers of the dinoflagellate. The water becomes noticeably coloured when concentrations reach about 200000 to 500000 cells 1~^ and, as the bloom develops, concentrations may exceed 10^ cells 1~^ When essential nutrients are exhausted by the dinoflagellates and the bloom decays, the bacterial decomposition of large amounts of organic material depletes the available oxygen and fish may die as a result of the lowered oxygen concentrations.

17 A cross-section of the Atlantic Ocean showing the formation and movement of intermediate and deep-water masses from polar regions. AABW, Antarctic Bottom Water; AAIW, Antarctic Intermediate Water; and NADW, North Atlantic Deep Water. 18 The relationship between pressure and depth. Both scales are logarithmic simply to accommodate the range of numbers. 1 I I I I I llll| I I I I llll| 1 I I I MM PRESSURE Hydrostatic pressure is another physical environmental factor affecting life in the sea. Pressure is determined by the weight of the overlying water column per unit area at a particular depth.

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