By G. H. Nancollas (auth.), G. H. Nancollas (eds.)
normal and pathological mineralization in vertebrates but additionally with the fascinating difficulties fascinated with the formation of in tracellular deposits of calcium oxalate in vegetation. right here cal cium carbonate and silica can also be concerned with the mineral ization approaches. Calcium carbonate is a crucial part within the formation of mollusc and avian shells. The statement that either calcite and aragonite can be shaped in biogenic cal cium carbonate increases very important questions as to what components keep watch over the formation of the ultimate mineral part. there's little question that thermodynamically much less solid levels might be kinetically stabilized for lengthy classes of time by way of different mole cules found in vivo. In common mineralization, calcium salts could first and foremost be deposited either in the cells and extracel lularly. within the latter case, the position of matrix vesicles and the ways that the matrix parts may perhaps keep watch over mineral ization have been in particular emphasised. there's sincerely a necessity for extra structural and sensible info related to cells, matrix parts, and their linked crystals. The improve ment of extra recommendations related to mutants, chromofluors, and fixatives for renovation of tissue and the ions found in vivo used to be urged. In facing irregular and pathological mineralization, the Workshop focused on urolithiasis, gout and pseudo-gout, and the formation of dental caries. Discussions in keeping with the effect of media of low pH on mineral surfaces highlighted many of the components of value in controlling crystal dis solution.
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Additional info for Biological Mineralization and Demineralization: Report of the Dahlem Workshop on Biological Mineralization and Demineralization Berlin 1981, October 18–23
The latter oc- curs only because of the prior presence of crystals of the material being crystallized and has become recognized recently as an important mechanism in its own right, mainly as a result of work on industrial crystallization. The classification of nucleation phenomena which will be adopted here may therefore be represented as shown in Table 1. TABLE 1 - Classification of nucleation phenomena. ~, homogeneous' isolid interface IL-_ _ _ ___ i absence ! j heterogeneous I ----------'1 ,Nucleation in ~rl ipresence of r-lcrystal of solute~:-------------~.
2 - Relation between solution supersaturation and the critical nucleus size. Attempts have been made to put the above theory on a sounder theoretical basis, and a comprehensive review of much of this work is given by Zettlemoyer (20). Most effort has been de- voted to making better estimates of the pre-exponential factor k n . The form of Eq. 8 is, however, dominated by the exponential term, and so the essential features of the equation remain unchanged no matter what approach is adopted. Figure 3 illustrates the relation between nucleation rate and supersaturation, as predicted by Eq.
A 2 rL may be interpreted as the mole fraction of growth sites within the adsorption layer. This is always larger than in the solution, and the exponent 1/3 brings (a 2 rL) 1/3 close to unity. If the concentration in the adsorption layer approaches that in the crystal (a- 3 growth units per volume unit), the fastest = lateral rate v+ will not exceed aj+ coefficient) (concentration gradient) (a) (area) (diffusion (a) (a 2 ) (D) (a- 3 /a) = = O/a ~ (10-9m2/s)/(3x10-10m) ~ 3 m/s. The slowest rate v+ (when inhibition by non-constituent ions is absent) will be obtained if the integration at kink sites is rate-determining.