By Neil Willetts (auth.), Don B. Clewell (eds.)
Bacterial plasmids originating in quite a lot of genera are being studied from quite a few views in enormous quantities of laboratories all over the world. those parts are popular for wearing "special" genes that confer vital survival houses, often neces sary below ordinary stipulations. vintage examples of plasmid-borne genes are these provid ing bacterial resistance to poisonous elements reminiscent of antibiotics, steel ions, and bacte riophage. frequently incorporated are these identifying bacteriocins, which can provide the bacterium a bonus in a hugely aggressive surroundings. Genes providing metabolic possible choices to the mobilephone below nutritionally under pressure stipulations also are often came across on plasmids, as are determinants very important to colonization and pathogenesis. it really is most probably that during many, if no longer so much, circumstances plasmids and their passenger determinants characterize DNA bought lately by way of their bacterial hosts, and it's the attribute mobility of those components that permits their effective institution in new bacterial cells by means of the method often called conjugation. while many plasmids are absolutely able to selling their very own conjugal move, others flow merely with support from coresident parts. the facility of a plasmid to set up itself in a number of various species is com mon, and up to date reports have proven that move can at times ensue from bacterial cells to eukaryotes resembling yeast.
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Doran et ai, unpublished data), traC (145), trbl-traW (1I4a), traU (128), trbC-traN-trbE (113, 114), traF-trbA-artA-traQ-trbB-trbl (171, 173), trbF-traH-traG (53, 78), traS-traT-traD (91, 92), trbH-tral (18), traX-jinO (30), traD --+ finO (174, 175). 1. Map of the F plasmid transfer region. Boxes indicate the position and size of F transfer region genes, transcribed from left to right. clullon ~ Kb OD H 10110 IxI 1r' " .......................... ............... . ............. ..............................
Sci. Paris 260:2087-2090. 34. lnst. Pasteur 112:1-9. 35. , 1975, Epidemiology and classification of plasmids, in: Microbiology-1974 (D. ), American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC, pp. 9-15. 36. R. N. B. A. Jackson, and A. ), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 3-16. 37. , 1966, The relationship ofF type piliation and F phage sensitivity to drug resistance transfer in R + F- Escherichia coli K12, J. Gen. Microbial. 45:365-376. 38. , 1971, Properties of an R factor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, J.
Additional evidence suggests that the distal genes, traD and tral, are constitutively expressed (63, 77, 92, 129). Characterization of a promoter sequence that precedes the F trbF gene indicates it has TraJ-dependent activity (78). The activity of a promoter in the anti-tra orientation, for artA, has also been reported (171). The extent to which such promoters influence transfer properties is presently unknown. In hosts expressing T7 RNA polymerase, F derivatives carrying a bacteriophage T7 late gene promoter sequence instead of the Py promoter sequence are able to express F pili and transfer to recipients (11lb).