By Bernard S. Covino Jr.
ASM instruction manual, Vol. 13A: Corrosion: basics, safeguard and Prevention
The function of ASM guide, quantity 13A: Corrosion: basics, checking out, and security is to aid engineers and architects comprehend corrosion in order to clear up present corrosion difficulties and forestall destiny ones. it's going to be the 1st e-book you choose whilst studying a corrosion challenge. The assurance of the quantity has been thoroughly revised to make sure that it's the so much accomplished, useful, and updated source to be had. each one article is listed to different acceptable sections of the instruction manual, and every offers a street map to the millions of person bibliographical references that have been used to assemble the knowledge.
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Additional resources for ASM Handbook: Corrosion : Fundamentals, Testing, and Protection
An electric circuit links a copper electrode in a solution of copper sulfate to a zinc electrode in a solution of zinc sulfate. If the external conduction path is closed, the oxidation-reduction reaction in Eq 8 will take place but under the form of two spatially separated electron-transfer reactions occurring each at one electrode, which are: • An oxidation-dissolution reaction involving the extraction of electrons from outer metal atoms to form metallic ions at the zinc electrode, called the anode: Zn(s) → Zn2+(aq) + 2e- (Eq 9) • A reduction-deposition reaction involving the addition of electrons to the metallic ions to form metal atoms deposited at the copper electrode, called the cathode: Cu2+ (aq) + 2e- → Cu(s) (Eq 10) Electrons will flow from the zinc anode where they are produced to the copper cathode where they are consumed; the two half-reactions in Eq 9 and 10 naturally combine in the electrochemical cell to form the oxidation-reduction reaction of Eq 8, termed the chemical cell reaction.
The difference in chemical composition of the two solutions produces a phenomenon of interdiffusion. In this process, except for a few electrolytes such as KCl, the cations and anions move at different speeds. As an example, in hydrogen chloride (HCl) solution in contact with another medium, the H+ ions move faster than the Cl- ions. As a result, a charge separation appears at the limit between the two liquids, the liquid junction. This produces a potential difference called the liquid junction potential, which is included in the measured voltage, V, as expressed in: V = VT - VR + VLJP (Eq 12) where VT is the test potential to be measured, VR is the reference electrode potential, and VLJP is the unknown liquid junction potential.
The situation is entirely different with a Cu /Cu system. If coupled with the H+/H2 couple, the reduction of copper ions is spontaneous ( , negative; , positive, the polarity of the Cu2+/Cu electrode is positive). The difference between these two metal couples in the direction of the spontaneous reaction with respect to the hydrogen couple must be represented by a sign. This sign will allow cataloging cell potentials from single electrode values and hence compute cell emfs. It was shown previously that the polarity of each electrode in an electrochemical cell is invariant, irrespective of whether the electrode reactions proceed in the spontaneous or the reverse direction.