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Extra resources for Applied Electrospray Mass Spectrometry (Practical Spectroscopy)
Other Techniques a. Sheath-Flow Interface. The addition of a secondary liquid by using a sheath-flow interface was introduced by Smith and coworkers (156) in 1988. 12000 ch_01 1/17/02 2:47 PM Page 25 ESI-MS: History, Theory, Instrumentation 25 This provides a makeup solvent to increase the flow rate for low flow techniques such as capillary electrophoresis (for which it was initially developed). The sheath liquid can also be used to modify the solvent composition and provide a means for applying the electric potential required to induce charge separation.
These designs provide an indirect path through a desolvating chamber to eliminate the problem of neutral solvent droplets that can enter the vacuum interface in “line-of-sight” designs. , 200°C for the JEOL design), the heat achieves desolvation without inducing decomposition of the analyte. Therefore, many “fragile” species such as thermally labile analytes and noncovalently bound complexes can readily be analyzed with an ESI source that makes use of thermal desolvation. Species that cannot tolerate high temperatures, such as some unstable organometallic complexes, can be analyzed by the “cold ESI” technique developed by Yamaguchi and coworkers (61).
Nanospray (244–282). Although high flow rates are convenient for use with conventional HPLC and flow injection methods, there are certain benefits to using extremely low flow rates for other applications. Microspray and nanospray sources operate in the low microliter per minute to manoliter per minute flow ranges. In brief, nanospray involves using a low flow rate and a small needle diameter. “Pure” electrospray techniques are used, and the spray is introduced directly into the vacuum interface without pneumatic, ultrasonic, or themal nebulization.