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Download e-book for iPad: An Encyclopedia of Language (Routledge Reference) by N. E. Collinge

By N. E. Collinge

* Examines how language works, accounting for its nature, its use, its research and its history
* accomplished indexes of issues and Technical phrases, and Names
* conscientiously illustrated to give an explanation for key issues within the text

`This wealthy repository of data on all points of language is a needs to for all libraries in better schooling, faculties and bigger public libraries.' - Library Review
`Each article has a very good bibliography. furthermore, there are entire indexes of issues and technical phrases and names. hugely advised for all collage and basic public libraries.' - Choice
`This vital publication is in lots of methods a state-of-the -art survey of present conceptions of, and ways to, language, with beneficiant references to extra specified resources. each one bankruptcy has an excellent bibliography.' - Language International
`A accomplished consultant ... with very thorough bibliographies ... Collinge's Encyclopedia is usually recommended to educational libraries.' - Reference Reviews
`The bibliographies are a useful relief ... the editor is to be congratulated for having performed a good activity ... there are nearly no parts of language and linguistics that don't get a glance in someplace, and there's strong signposting within the textual content itself.' - Nigel Vincent, instances better schooling complement

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1 Rules linking phonemes and allophones Phonemic and allophonic transcriptions can be related to one another by statements which are often referred to as RULES. Thus the two types of [l] in English can be related to the phoneme /l/ by a rule like the following: This rule expresses the fact that English speakers consistently pronounce these two sounds differently, and yet at the same time treat them as if they were ‘the same’, finding it quite normal that one symbol in the spelling system can stand for either of the sounds.

4 Distinctive features and the phonological system These classes of phonemes can be represented as being characterised by the presence or absence of certain properties: thus voiceless sounds will all be marked ‘absence of the property “voicing”’, coronal sounds ‘presence of the property “tongue tip or blade raising”’, nasal sounds ‘presence of the property “nasality”’, etc. This information may be displayed in a diagram like Table 1, which lists the properties or ‘features’ in the left hand column, and then shows for the sound at the head of each column whether the property is present (by inserting ‘+’ in the appropriate cell), or absent (by inserting ‘−’).

Mɔɫ/ ‘pier’. Such differences between allophonic status and phonemic status can cause difficulties for learners; English learners of Russian will have no trouble learning Russian /mɔɫ/ ‘pier’, with dark [l] in the final position, but may be expected to find /mɔl/ ‘moth’ problematic because of the clear [l] in a position where it would not appear in English. For the allophone v. phoneme distinction see Jones (1957), Jones (1950: chapters II–IX), Hyman (1975:5–9). 2 Some allophones in English Other examples of sets of English sounds which are allophones of one phoneme include the following: (a) At the beginning of a stressed syllable, voiceless plosives are strongly aspirated (cf.

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