Environmental

G. E. Fogg (auth.), Professor Dr. Lal Chand Rai, Professor's Algal Adaptation to Environmental Stresses: Physiological, PDF

By G. E. Fogg (auth.), Professor Dr. Lal Chand Rai, Professor Dr. Jai Prakash Gaur (eds.)

Algae, mostly held because the central fundamental manufacturers of aquatic platforms, inhabit all available habitats. they've got nice skill to deal with a harsh surroundings, e.g. tremendous low and high temperatures, suboptimal and supraoptimal mild intensities, low availability of crucial food and different assets, and excessive concentrations of poisonous chemical substances, and so forth. a large number of physiological, biochemical, and molecular options permit them to outlive and develop in annoying habitats. This ebook offers a serious account of varied mechanisms of rigidity tolerance in algae, a lot of that can take place in microbes and crops as well.

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Nature 403:371-374 Drechsler Z, Sharkia R, Cabantchik ZI, Beer S (1993) Bicarbonate uptake in the marine macro alga Ulva sp. is inhibited by classical probes of anion exchange by red blood cells. Planta 191 :34-40 Carbon Limitation 41 Drechsler Z, Sharkia R, Cabantchik ZI, Beer S (1994) The relationship of arginine groups to photosynthetic HC0 3- uptake in Viva sp. mediated by a putative anion exchanger. Planta 194:250-255 Falkowski PG, Raven JA (1997) Aquatic photosynthesis. Blackwell, Malden, Massachusetts Fernandez, JA, Garcia-Sanchez MJ, Felle HH (1999) Physiological evidence for a proton pump and sodium exclusion mechanisms at the plasma membrane of the marine angiosperm Zostera marina L.

HCO ' I Fig. 3. Schematic presentation of type 3b HCO, utilisation, combined with CA activity on the inside of the cell membrane One arrangement that has been suggested for green microalgae (and which would facilitate both CO2 entry and Ci transport) is the location of CA just inside the plasma membrane. This CA is suggested to be associated with alkaline pockets, thus achieving an almost complete transformation of entering CO 2 into HCO l' (cf. Kaplan and Reinhold 1999). Such an arrangement would comprise a CA activity localised to the cytoplasm compartment of the cell without interfering with CCM associated HCO l' utilisation due to outJeakage of CO 2, Besides, it would also act as a trap for any outdiffusion of car It is not unlikely that also (at least some) green macroalgae (such as VIva and Enteromorpha) have this possible mechanism.

A priori, nearly all Ci assimilated is used in photosynthesis. In this process, captured light energy is used to synthesise carbohydrates (and produce 02) from CO2 and water. While water, as a substrate for photosynthesis, is never limiting, the light and CO2 supplies will vary considerably and independently of each other on both short- and long-term scales. e. ATP and NADPH) nor CO2 can be stored for longer periods of time (or to any great extent). Since excess of captured light energy might be very harmful (Demmig-Adams and Adams 1992, 2000), the plants in the sea apparently have to compromise between maximum productivity and safe light utilisation (avoidance of over-excitation; cf.

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