By Henning Andersen (Ed.)
This choice of papers consolidates the remark that linguistic swap normally is actualized step-by-step: any structural innovation being brought, accredited, and generalized, over the years, in a single grammatical surroundings after one other, in a development that may be understood by way of connection with the markedness values and the score of the conditioning good points. The advent to the quantity and a bankruptcy by means of Henning Andersen make clear the theoretical bases for this statement, that's exemplified and mentioned in separate chapters by means of Kristin Bakken, Alexander Bergs and Dieter Stein, Vit Bubenik, Ulrich Busse, Marianne Mithun, Lene Schøsler, and John Charles Smith within the gentle of knowledge from the histories of Norwegian, English, Hindi, Northern Iroquoian, and Romance. a last bankruptcy via Michael Shapiro provides a philosophical point of view. The papers have been first awarded in a workshop on “Actualization styles in Linguistic swap” on the XIV overseas convention on historic Linguistics, Vancouver, B.C. in 1999.
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Extra resources for Actualization: Linguistic Change in Progress. Papers from a Workshop Held at the 14th International Conference on Historical Linguistics, Vancouver, B.C., 14 August 1999
Figure 1. Contradictory opposites construed (a) as contradictory and (b) as contrary; (c) a contrary view of a strict contradiction. Examples such as this, which are common, show that for a practical logic, the contradictory and contrary modes of opposition are not miles apart, but MARKEDNESS AND THE THEORY OF CHANGE 43 closely related. Indeed, from a practical point of view, true contradictories appear as a species of contraries—they are just those exclusive distinctions in which no borderline case or intermediate state, no 'tertium' is conceivable; cf.
Phonology and morphophonemics abound in closely parallel examples. , Eng. /rayd-/ ~ /rowd-/ "ride", /nayf-/ ~ /nayv-/ "knife". But when there is a synchronic variation between two such alternants, and we view them in dynamic terms, one of them in effect encroaches on the other's privileges of occurrence; cf. ". That is to say, the privileges of occurrence of one alternant include those of its opposite, and in the course of time, this 'generic' alternant may entirely supplant its covariant. 3. With this last example, perhaps, we come close to the source of the asymmetry of markedness.
Contradictory oppositions in meaning, but tries to explicate the asymmetry of markedness as a (contradictory) opposition, not in meaning, but in what the marked and the unmarked members of a grammatical opposition can be used to assert (in his words, bezeichnen "denote", besagen "signify", ankündigen "indicate", signalisieren "signal"): As he examines two opposed morphological categories, the linguist often assumes that these categories are equals, and that each of them has its own positive meaning: category I denotes A, category II denotes B; or, at least, I denotes A and II denotes the absence or negation of A.