Read e-book online 21st Century Sociology: A Reference Handbook PDF

By Clifton D. (Dow) Bryant, Dennis L. Peck

21st Century Sociology: A Reference guide presents a concise discussion board in which the mammoth array of data collected, rather prior to now 3 a long time, will be equipped right into a unmarried definitive source. the 2 volumes of this Reference guide concentrate on the corpus of information garnered in conventional parts of sociological inquiry, in addition to rfile the final orientation of the more moderen and presently rising parts of sociological inquiry.

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Comte argued that positivism and the still-to-beidentified area of “sociology” would serve as a means of supporting his intention to create a unique perspective of human relations and a system to reestablish the social order and organization of society. Reestablishment of this new social order was to proceed in accordance with the positivist stage of evolution with its ineluctable natural laws that could and would be established through engaging the scientific perspective. Along with the arts, the science of sociology, according to Comte, was to emerge as the queen of the sciences, the scientia scientorum, and would ultimately supplant biology and cosmology.

Robert K. Merton 8– • –THE DISCIPLINE OF SOCIOLOGY ([1957] 1968), who wrote in reaction to the abstractness of the previous dominant position of the functionalist school of sociology, stated that theories of the middle range are theories that lie between the minor but necessary working hypotheses that evolve in abundance during day-to-day research and the all-inclusive systematic efforts to develop a unified theory that will explain all the observed uniformities of social behavior, social organization and social change.

142). Physical science is not capable of responding to human social issues. If sociologists have in a vain effort failed to fulfill the promise of the past, this does not indicate that they will not do so at some future time. Again, as Lundberg (1947) heeded long ago, “Science is at best a growth, not a sudden revelation. We also can use it imperfectly and in part while it is developing” (pp. 143–144). And a few years later but prior to the turmoil that was to embroil the decades of the 1960s and 1970s, John Madge (1962) urged that a century after the death of the positivist Auguste Comte (now 150 years later) the structure of sociology remains incomplete.

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